International Journal of Energy Engineering          
International Journal of Energy Engineering(IJEE)
Frequency: Yearly
Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Sri Bandyopadhyay(Australia)
An Efficient Reactor for Purification of Domestic Water Using Solar Energy
Full Paper(PDF, 590KB)
Contamination of water due to various organic substances such as bacteria, pesticides causes serious health issues. A reactor system was fabricated utilizing renewable solar energy for purification of pollutants dissolved in drinking water. A novel glass tube based prototype reactor was constructed by coating nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) inside the glass tubes. The Nano-TiO2 was deposited on the bottom surface of the clear glass tubes and is connected in parallel increasing the surface area. For highly contaminated water, increased number of connected tubes and/or several reactors and/or slow flow rate of water are possible. In the present study single reactor module was used for convenience. The reactor was exposed to sunlight and the contaminated water was passed through the reactor. The photocatalytic activity including antibacterial activity was tested using Methylene blue and the bacterial culture, Escherichia coli. The reactor system is found to be effective in decontaminating the tested organic entities. The reactor module can be used to purify water for drinking purpose and can be fixed on top of roofs for exposure to sunlight.
Keywords:Solar Energy; Titanium Dioxide; Photocatalyst
Author: I. R.M.Kottegoda1, H. C.D.P.Colomboge1, K. S.P.Karunadasa1, D. S. Samarawickrama1, S. Samarawickrama1
1.Materials Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  1. S.Malato, P Fernandez-Ibanez, M.I. Maldonado, J. Blanco, W. Gernjak,. Decontamination and disinfection of water by solar photo-catalysis: recent overview and trends. Catal.Today. vol. 147, pp59, 2009.
  2. A. Mills, S. Le Hunte, An overview of semiconductor photocatalysis, J.Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. Vol.108, pp 1–35, 1997.
  3. A. Fujishima and K. Honda, Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode. Nature, 288, pp. 37–38, 1972.
  4. D.F. Ollis and H. Al-Ekabi, Photocatalytic Purification and Treatment of Water and Air, Elsevier, Amsterdam, London, 1993.
  5. T. Watanabe, Super hydrophilic photocatalyst and its application. Ceramics (Jpn. J.), Vol.31, pp. 837–840, 1996.
  6. K. Hashimoto and A. Fujishima, Semiconductor photo-electrode and photochemical reaction. Ceramic (Jpn. J.), vol. 31 pp. 815–820, 1996.
  7. S.S. Shinde, C.H. Bhosale, K.Y. Rajpure, Photocatalytic activity of sea water using TiO2 catalyst under solar light, Journal of Photo-chemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol.103, pp. 111–117, 2011.
  8. K. Tennakone, I.R.M. Kottegoda, and G.R.R.A. Kumara, Continuous flow reactor for solar decontamination of water, Patent No. 11499, The Registry of Patents and Trade Marks, Sri Lanka , 1998.
  9. Ajay K. Ray, Antonie A.C.M. Beenackers, Development of a new photocatalytic reactor for water purification, Catalysis Today, Vol. 40, pp 73-83, 1998.
  10. K. Tennakone, C.T.K. Thilakaratna, I.R.M. Kottegoda, Photomineralization of carbofuran by TiO2 supported catalysts., Water Research (IWAQ): vol. 31, pp. 1909, 1996.
  11. K. Tennakone, I.R.M. Kottegoda, Photocatalytic Mineralization of Paraquat dissolved in water by TiO2 supported on polythene films. J. Photochem. & Photobiol. A: Chem: vol. 93, pp. 79-81, 1995.
  12. V. Augugliaro, L. Palmisuno, A. Selafani, Technolog. Environ. Chem. Vol. 16, Gorden and Brench, pp88-109, 1988.
  13. D. A H Hanaor, C. C Sorrell, Review of the anatase to rutile phase transformation, J.Mater. Sci., Vol. 46 (4) pp855-874, 2011.
  14. T. Matsunaga, R. Tomoda, T. Nakajima, H. Wake. J. FEMS Microbiology Letters. Vol. 29 (1-2) pp 211-214, 1985.
  15. A. Makowski, W. Waradas. J. Current Topics in Biophysics. Vol. 25 (1) 19-25, 2001.
  16. M. D. Blake, P.C. Maness, Z. Huang, E. Wolfrum, J.Huang. J. Separation & Purification Reviews. Vol 28 (1) pp1 – 50, 1999.
  17. A. Fujishima A, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, TiO2 Photo catalysis: Fundamentals and Applications, BKC, Tokyo, 1999.
  18. P.C. Maness, S. Smolinki, D.M. Blake, Z. Huang, E.J. Wolfrum, W.A. Jacoby Bactericidal activity of photo catalytic TiO2 reaction: toward an understanding of its killing mechanism J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Vol. 65 (9) pp 4094-4098, 1999.
  19. K.P. Kuhn, I.R. Chabemy, K.. Masholder, M. Stickler, V.W.Benz, H.G. Sonntag, L.Erdinger, Disinfection of surfaces by photo catalytic oxidation with titanium dioxide and UVA light. J Chemosphere, Vol. 53 (1), pp 71-77, 2003.
  20. K.J. Shieh, M.Li, Y.H.Lee, S.D. Sheu, Y.T. Liu, Y.C.Wang. Antibacterial performance of photocatalyst thin film fabricated by defection effect in visible light. J. Nanomedicine. Vol. 2 (2) pp 121-126, 2006.