International Journal of Energy Engineering          
International Journal of Energy Engineering(IJEE)
ISSN:2225-6563(Print)
ISSN:2225-6571(Online)
Frequency: Yearly
Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Sri Bandyopadhyay(Australia)
Ball Milling of Class-F Indian Fly Ash Obtained from a Thermal Power Station
Full Paper(PDF, 647KB)
Abstract:
Fly ash (FA) is a waste material produced by combustion of coal. Large quantities of FA have been generated worldwide from thermal power stations. Many routes have been tried for the safe disposal of FA. In an effort to add value to FA, a class-F FA that has been generated by a thermal power station was subjected to high energy ball milling. Ball milling was carried out for a total duration of 60 hrs and samples were taken out at regular intervals for characterizing various properties of the ball milled FA. Crystallite size and particle size of the ball milled FA were determined by X-ray diffraction and dynamic laser scattering, respectively. The shape and texture were studied using SEM and TEM. IR Spectroscopy revealed that the smooth and inert surface of the FA was converted to a rough and more reactive one by ball milling. It was found that after 60 hrs of milling, crystallite size of quartz phase present in the FA was reduced from 37.58 nm to 9.25 nm and the average particle size got reduced from 94.35 μm to 0.70 μm.
Keywords:Fly Ash; High Energy Ball Milling; Nanomaterial; Waste; Electron Microscopy
Author: Akshata G. Patil1, S. Anandhan1
1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering,National Institute of Technology Karnataka,Surathkal, Mangalore – 575025, India.
References:
  1. M. F. Ashby, P. J. Ferreira and Daniel L. Schodek, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Designs. Elsevier, 2009.
  2. M. Wilson, K. Kannangara, G. Smith, M. Simmons, Burkhard Raguse, Nanotechnology, Basic Science and Emerging Technologies, Chapman and Hall/CRC, New York, 2002.
  3. T. Pradeep, Nano Essentials, Understanding the nanoscience and nanotechnology. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2007.
  4. L. Tilstra, S. A. Broughton, R. S. Tanke, D. Jelski, V. French, G. Zhang, A. K. Popov, A. B.Western and T F. George, The Science of Nanotechnology: An Introductory Text. Nova Science, New York. 2008.
  5. M. Hosokawa, K. Nogi, M. Naito, T. Yokoyama, Nanoparticle Technology Handbook, 1st ed.,Elsevier, 2007.
  6. M. Saxena, R. K. Morchhale, P. Asokan and B. K. Prasad, “Plant Fiber Waste Reinforced Polymer Composites as a Potential Wood Substitute Material,” Journal of Composite Materials. vol 42, pp. 367-383, 2008.
  7. S. Dhadse, P. Kumari and L J Bhagia, “Fly ash characterization and Government initiatives in India-A review,” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, vol 67, pp. 11-18, Jan. 2008.
  8. S C Raghavendra, S. Khasim, M Revanasiddappa, M V N Ambika Prasad and A B Kulkarni, “Synthesis, characterization and low frequency a.c. conduction of polyaniline/fly ash composites,” Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 26, pp. 733–739, Dec. 2003.
  9. M. Ahmaruzzaman, “A review on the utilization of fly ash,” progress in energy and combustion science, Elsevier, vol.36, pp. 327-363, 2010.
  10. J. B. Rao, P. Narayanaswami and K. S. Prasad, “Thermal stability of nano structured fly ash synthesized by high energy ball milling,” International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 284-299, 2010.
  11. M. J. Khan, A. A. Al-Juhani, R. Shawabhek, A. Ul-Hamid, I. A. Hussein,“Chemical modification of waste oil fly ash for improved mechanical and thermal properties of low density polyethylene composites,”J Polym Res, vol.18, pp. 2275-2284, 2011.
  12. Y. Chen, C. P. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, “One-dimensional nanomaterials synthesized using high-energy ball milling and annealing process,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. vol. 7, pp. 839–846, 2006.
  13. Y. Leng, Materials Characterization, Introduction to Microscopic and Spectroscopic Methods. JohnWiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd. 2008.
  14. Z. Nalbantoglu, “Effectiveness of Class C fly ash as an expansive soil stabilizer,” Construction and Building Materials. vol. 18, pp. 377–381, 2004.
  15. K. T. Paul , S. K. Satpathy , I. Manna , K. K. Chakraborty , G. B. Nando, “Preparation and Characterization of Nano structured Materials from Fly Ash: A Waste from Thermal Power Stations, by High Energy Ball Milling,” Nanoscale Res Lett., pp. 397-404. 2007.
  16. S.R. Mishra, S. Kumar, A. Wagh, J.Y. Rho, T. Gheyi, “Temperature-dependent surface topography analysis of Illinois class F fly ash using ESEM and AFM,” Materials Letters, vol. 57, pp. 2417-2424, 2003.
  17. S. Thongsang, N. Sombatsompop, “Effect of NaOH and Si69 treatments on the properties of flyash/natural rubber composites,” Polymer Composites, Dec. 2006.
  18. B. D. Cullity, S. R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction, 3rd ed, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey: 2001.
  19. D. C. D. Nath, S. Bandyopadhyay, S. Gupta a, A. Yua, D. Blackburn, C. White, “Surface-coated fly ash used as filler in biodegradable poly (vinyl alcohol) compositefilms: Part 1—the modification process,” Applied Surface Science. vol. 256, pp. 2759–2763, 2010.
  20. B. Smith, Infrared spectral Interpretation. Library of congress-in–publication data, 1999.
  21. P. S. Nayak and B K Singh, “Instrumental characterization of clay by XRD, XRF and FTIR,” Bull.Mater.Sci. vol. 30, pp. 235-238, June. 2007.
  22. Z. Hong-bo, W. Lu-bin, “Screening of Surface Medication Agents and Modification Mechanism of Fly Ash,” Journal of China University of Mining and Technology, vol. 17, pp. 341-344, Sept. 2007.
  23. S. Prakash, J. K. Mohay, B. Das and R. Venugopal, “Technical Note Characterization and Removal of Iron from Fly Ash of Talcher Area, Orissa, India,” Minerals Engineering.vol. 14, pp. 123-126, 2001.